Supporters of raw feeding believe that the natural diet of raw meat, bones, and organs is nutritionally superior to cooked meat and commercial pet food. They argue that a careful plan of a raw diet gives the animal numerous health benefits, including a healthier coat and cleaner teeth and elimination of bad breath. They also endorse numerous medical benefits such as anal gland maintenance, allergen control, satiation and toxin irradication. Critics of raw feeding assert that the risk of nutritional imbalance, intestinal perforations and foodborne illnesses posed by the handling and feeding of raw meat and bones outweigh any benefits. The assertion that raw feeding is inherently better because it is natural has also been criticized by proponents of commercial pet foods.
There are now considerable numbers of veterinary surgeons who advocate species-appropriate diets including raw feeding dogs and cats. The Raw Feeding Veterinary Society (RFVS) was founded in the UK in 2014 and organises conferences and discussions regarding raw feeding and related issues for Veterinary Surgeons and Nurses.
There are numerous arguments over the health effects of feeding commercial pet foods, and many raw feeding pet owners claim to have noticed a significant increase in overall health after switching to a raw food diet. The number of raw feeding owners who make these observations over the life-time of their pet far exceeds the numbers of pets required to complete an in-house commercial pet food trial (6 out of 8 starters) that runs for 6 months only according to AAFCO guidelines.
Commercial pet foods, dry foods in particular, often contain a large amount of grains, which proponents of grain-free food feel are inappropriate for carnivorous dogs and cats. Because cats are obligate carnivores, it is believed that a switch to a predominantly meat based raw diet would be especially beneficial (as compared to a raw diet for dogs) due to cats’ relative inability to digest grains. Studies comparing the source of protein in dry cat food concluded that the digestibility of meat-based protein is superior to corn-based protein.
Because commercial pet foods are assumed to be the primary or exclusive element of a pet’s diet, manufacturers enrich their product by supplementing the food with vitamins and minerals. As the heat used to process commercial pet foods may reduce the level of naturally occurring nutrients, critics question the actual nutritional value of commercial foods. Critics argue that there may be elements to pet nutrition yet to be discovered or that are not understood well enough to be supplemented. There is skepticism over the efficacy of supplements vs the natural absorption of naturally occurring nutrients. The same rationale is used by some to reject supplemented home cooked pet food. A study involving rats has suggested that the digestibility of the amino acids in cat food is altered during heat processing. A further study on artificial supplement in humans concluded that less than 26% of supplment was absorbed and over time, the body even built up a resistance whereas the same vitamins derived from food gave an absorbtion of over 82% with no resistance. This study has not yet been carried out on animals but it is noted that instrinsic responses of dogs, closely relate to that of humans.
Objection To Cooked
Critics have pointed out the flaws in associating “natural” with better and Billinghurst himself warns against that stating “There are grave dangers that go along with the natural diet and natural conditions the ancestors or wild cousins of our dogs live with.” Katie Merwick, who runs an animal rescue sanctuary cautions against “making a fetish out of what animals eat in the wild”
Pottenger’s Cat Study
One study used to back up the claims of raw food being superior to cooked food is Francis M. Pottenger, Jr.‘s study of 900 cats over a period of 10 years from 1932 to 1942. His results showed that cats that were fed 2/3 raw meat, 1/3 raw milk and a small amount of cod liver oil were disease free and healthy while those fed the same food with the meat cooked developed degenerative diseases and reproductive difficulties, with new generations plagued with health problems. The study was done before the importance of taurine in a cat’s diet was known and it has been suggested that the group of Pottenger’s cats on cooked food simply suffered from taurine deficiency as heating or cooking food causes a reduction in taurine content. In a study on feline maternal taurine deficiency, the group of taurine-deficient cats exhibited symptoms similar to the Pottenger’s cats on a cooked diet.
Raw Diet Choices
There are various differences in opinion within the raw feeding community. Issues include the question of whether dogs are omnivores or carnivores. Also, whether cats and dogs need plant material in their diet, and if so, the proportion of such material. The safety of whole bones is also a frequent topic of discussion. Recipes that are advocated range from those that include vegetables and grains, to a minimalist approach using only meat, bones, organ meat, and necessary supplements such as the Meat with Bone diet advocated by Michelle T. Bernard.
RMB – Raw Meaty Bones
Veterinary Surgeon, Tom Lonsdale, was one of the earliest advocates of feeding pet carnivores a species-appropriate diet best approximated by the Raw meaty Bones diet. His 1992 book Raw meaty Bones book was nominated for an Australian Veterinary Association Award for pointing out the link between inappropriate diets and periodontal disease that can lead onto other systemic illnesses. Tom Lonsdale’s later book Work Wonders was written after many requests from owners for an easy-to-follow read rather than his extensively referenced and scientifically written early book Raw meaty Bones which was written more with the veterinary profession in mind.
Barf – Bones and Raw Food OR Biologically Appropriate Raw Food
The “BARF” diet, an acronym for Biologically Appropriate Raw Food or Bones And Raw Food was created by Billinghurst. The acronym was coined by Debra Tripp. A typical BARF diet is made up of 60-80% of raw meaty bones (RMB), that is bones with about 50% meat, (e.g. chicken neck, back and wings) and 20-40% of fruit and vegetables, offal, meat, eggs, or dairy foods.
The Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) provides standards that guides many commercial pet food companies, a level of supervision that does not occur with homemade food. One study analyzed the nutritional content of three homemade diets (BARF, Ultimate and Volhard) and two commercial raw food diets (Steve’s Real Food and Sojourner Farms) and compared it to the AAFCO standards, showing nutritional imbalances in the homemade diets. Three of the diets had abnormal calcium-to-phosphorus ratios which can lead to hyperparathyroidism and fibrous osteodystrophy in puppies.
Some proponents of raw diets recommend consultation with a veterinarian or animal nutritionist to verify that proper nutrients are being ingested, others dismiss the importance of AAFCO standards, claiming that AAFCO certification is not indicative of the quality of a diet.
Bones and dental health
Raw bones fed to dogs contain high amounts of calcium and phosphorus that is essential for neuromuscular, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine and clotting function. The ratio of calcium to phosphorus for adult dogs should be 1:1. Compared to commercial dog food, the raw food diet allows dogs to work for their meal, ripping the meat off bones and then gnawing at the bones. In regards to dental health, bone to tooth gnawing allows a dog to rid their teeth of plaque buildup promoting good oral health. Skeptics argue however that this isn’t healthy for dogs and it can cause dental fractures.
The use of whole bone creates a risk of dental fractures, intestinal obstruction, gastroenteritis, and intestinal perforations. Wolf care managers questioned on the topic of feeding bones identified the presence of animal hide with hair as offering some protection from intestinal perforation in the wild. An analysis of the skulls of African wild dogs showed that the natural diet of wild carnivores does not prevent them from suffering the same oral disease as their domestic counterparts.
Bacteria, viruses and parasites
While the intense heat used in manufacturing pet food or cooking meat destroys any potential bacteria, raw meats may contain bacteria that are unsafe for both dogs and cats. The United States government reported that in 2006, 16.3% of all chickens were contaminated with Salmonella. A study on 25 commercial raw diets for dogs and cats detected salmonella in 20% and Escherichia coli in 64% of the diets. However, the E. coli strain that can cause severe illness O157:H7 was not tested for. An example of the severity of E. coli H157:O7 infections can be seen in affected greyhound racing dogs fed raw meat as part of their diet. Known in greyhounds as “Alabama rot”, the disease causes severe vasculitis, cutaneous necrosis, renal failure and death. A contributing factor might be that racing greyhounds are typically fed raw meat classified as “not for human consumption”, which may contain higher than normal levels of bacteria.
Raw feeders claim that the stomach enzymes and short intestinal tracts o dogs and cats allow them to handle harmful bacteria. There has been a reported case where two cats fed a raw diet developed salmonellosis and died as a result. A veterinarian from the National Animal Poison Control Center suggests that the diarrhea in animals that raw feeders attribute to detoxing could be caused by pathogens such as Salmonella, E. coli, Clostridium and Campylobacter. Bacteria proliferation in any meat can be reduced by following proper food safety practices such as defrosting meat in the refrigerator; harmful bacteria can be largely eliminated from meat by cooking.
Raw meats may also contain harmful parasites. As with bacteria, these parasites are destroyed during the heat processing of cooking meat or manufacturing pet foods. Some raw diet recipes call for freezing meat before serving it, which greatly reduces (but does not necessarily eliminate) extant parasites. According to a former European Union directive, freezing fish at -20 °C (-4 °F) for 24 hours kills parasites. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends freezing at -35 °C (-31 °F) for 15 hours, or at -20 °C (-4 °F) for 7 days. The most common parasites in fish are roundworms from the family Anisakidae and fish tapeworm. While freezing pork at -15 °C (5 °F) for 20 days will kill any Trichinella spiralis worm, trichinosis is rare in countries with well established meat inspection programs, with cases of trichinosis in humans in the United States mostly coming from consumption of raw or undercooked wild game. Trichinella species in wildlife are resistant to freezing. In dogs and cats symptoms of trichinellosis would include mild gastrointestinal upset (vomiting and diarrhea) and in rare cases, muscle pain and muscle stiffness.
A survey of accredited zoos worldwide showed a slightly increased risk of parasites and diseases in animals that are carcass fed as compared to commercial food fed. However, the researchers suggested that that may be caused by increased opportunistic preying and infected live preys may be the source of contamination.
Veterinary associations such as the American Veterinary Medical Association, British Veterinary Association and Canadian Veterinary Medical Association have warned of the animal and public health risk that could arise from feeding raw meat to pets and have stated that there is no scientific evidence to support the claimed benefits of raw feeding. While lack of favorable evidence can result from lack of long-term studies investigating the effect of eating a balanced raw diet, a minority of holistic-oriented veterinarians recommend raw feeding because of clear health benefits they observed over the years in raw fed dogs. Dr Tom Lonsdale in Australia has been a long-time and prominent veterinary advocate of raw feeding.
In 2007, The Sydney Morning Herald reported that the RSPCA Australia President Dr. Hugh Wirth has stated that veterinary associations in Britain and Australia make a “compromise” and advocate some feeding of raw bones to dogs. This contradicts the contemporaneous warnings put out by the BVA against feeding pets raw bones.
Bichons on Raw
There have been numerous articles written in regard to biologically appropriate diets yet no specific breed study has been performed. It is suggested that Bichons who are prone to skin allergies, fatty and subaceous cycsts and anal blockages, take extremely well to a raw diet with issues improving drastically, if not irradicated. However, it is also known that the Bichon breed is suseptable to Kidney stones which is worsened through the implementation of high protien diets. Controversially, it is claimed that this does not prevent the change over to raw, but Bichons with a known Kidney disorder simply change the ratio of raw fed vegetables to meat and bone. In ne study performed in 2008 on a controlled number of dogs with Kidney disease, it was suggested that the raw fed dogs either improved in overall health or maintained condition as opposed to progressed deterioration. It was also found that life expectancy actually increased in the raw fed dogs although it was also noted that further studies would need to be completed to verify the findings.
PRO’S AND CON’S – To feed or not to feed
- Better overall health – Subjective
- Better digestion and less digestive upsets such as colitis, runny stools
- Fewer and better formed stools
- Better smelling breath, less tartar, cleaner teeth – Subjective
- Glossier coats
- More stamina
- No itchiness – Allergen Reduction
- Food enjoyment – Variety
- A calmer, yet more focused, nature – Nutrient Absorbtion
- Better Satiation – Digestion
- Less anal gand issues – Subjective
- Reduction in forced vomiting – Subjective
- Less toxin and chemical absorbtion
- Reduced boredom – Chewing
- No proven study to show benefits – Requires evidence across 20-years to be proven
- Only studies performed have been funded via dog food industry – Negative marketing
- Takes time and preparation – Subjective
- Can lead to an unbalanced diet
- Can create higher risk of bacteria and parasites in animals and humans – Hygeine
- Can create and ignite hunting instincts – Predatory Diet
- Costs more – Subjective
There are clearly arguments for and against raw feeding and whether you opt for raw or not, the key to a healthy Bichon is getting a balanced diet of mixed nutrients, how you obtain that is through personal choice!